20171220

Online reading assignment question: advice to future students

Astronomy 210, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students have a weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. The following question was asked after the last lecture, but prior to the final exam.

Tell a student who is about to take this course next semester what he/she needs to know or to do in order to succeed in this course. (Graded for completion.)
"Study previous exams, review chapters after reading them once. Take notes while reading on flashcards. Ask questions! Review class assignments prior to going to class."

"Before each quiz do the quiz question packets--that is the best way to study for the quizzes, and also go to all of the classes. P-dog does really well at explaining everything."

"Make it to class, do the online reading assignments, spend time reading, get involved. Your teacher is there to help you."

"Do reading assignments in advance before class. Attend all class lectures and pay attention. Take good notes and don't forget to study and review. Keep every quiz and use them to study for exams"

"Do the reading assignments on time."

"Study and go over the online presentations and reading assignments before class, it will make learning things much easier."

"Stay on top of the assignments and if anything seems confusing, like how much the website/blog is used, or the format of the practice quizzes, contact P-dog right away. He is there to help! He obviously enjoys teaching, that's refreshing. But if you get confusing about using the website/blog, ask, don't wait! (I'm still trying to decipher it all!)"

"Go to class!"

"One must do the reading assignments. It helps to identify the key points of the reading, and help clarify some questions before going to class."

"Do not forget about the online reading assignments, they can really hurt/help your grade."

"Reading assignments, show up to class, and study for the quizzes."

"Have a study buddy who knows what they're doing and can help you study for the tests. do online reading."

"Show up to class and participate in group assignments/practice quizzes."

"Study/prepare for the quizzes! They are essential in this class and will really help you know the material on tests!"

"Go to class! And don't be afraid to use the online resources. The quiz and test archives are there to help you succeed."

"I think learning how to use the starwheel would be a good skill to have. The starwheels can tell a lot about astronomy, and think that learning how to use the starwheel is important."

"Don't get caught up in all the various subjects. Eat this thing one bite at a time."

"Don't miss class, as the in-class assignments are fun, and will learn material better than reading the book. Keep quizzes and test (in-class assignments if possible) as they are great study material."

"Do not procrastinate. Do not give up. Every point you can gain is worth it. Whether you've maxed out your points and are using it as practice, or you're actually getting points for your final grade, don't waste any opportunity."

"Familiarize yourself with and make good use of the course website. And don't be afraid to ask the instructor lots of questions :)"

"Don't forget to do the reading assignments and study for every quiz."

"Make sure you do the reading assignments, and go to class and take the quizzes. "

"Come to class, do these assignments, and try (but fail no matter how hard you try) to grow a better mustache than P-dog."

"Read. It really helps."

"Go to class, do the online work, talk to the people in your groups, and be grateful this is a chill-ass astronomy class."

"You need to actually study and do the reading assignments."

Online reading assignment question: advice to self for next semester

Physics 205A, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students have a bi-weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. The following question was asked after the last lecture, but prior to the final exam.

Give a piece of advice to yourself at the start of next semester on what you should do (the same, or differently) in order to succeed in Physics 205A/B (or similar science courses). (Graded for completion.)
"Attend class, that definitely keeps you up with the material, and helps a lot in the tests. Doing the homework cautiously and just studying a lot too!"

"Study for your midterms because I got 60/75 on each one."

"Show up, go to lab, do homework assignments, and just do what you usually would to succeed in a course."

"Keep up/ahead on reading assignments and attendance from early on the semester."

"Meet with a study group and a tutor more often."

"Showing up everyday helps! I didn't really need the textbook except for occasional reference."

"You should continue to do all the assigned homework, you should study for the quizzes and midterms. You should take more time to fully go through the textbook so that you can better understand the material."

"Do all the homework, labs, and quizzes this will help a lot in the course. Study, study, study."

"Just make time to do the online homework and reading. It really isn’t that bad or difficult. Just quit procrastinating and you’ll be fine."

"Keep doing the homework and going to class. But honestly read more and do more practice problems to be familiar with everything in the problem."

"Practice problems often. Review notes online on the blog and talk with the teacher and embedded tutor often."

"Keep up on the post-lab reports."

"Make an outline that briefly, but accurately expresses the main topics for each concept. Practice using the equations for each concept and apply the equations to your understanding of the topic."

"Don't be afraid to get a tutor for this class."

"Not taking course."

"Don’t procrastinate so much, and actually study more."

"Practice prior year's quizzes and exams! Also, really know each equation, what it is used for, and what the symbols in the equation stand for. "

"I would advise myself to study more about the laws and things that make something true in physics (for example newtons laws). I would also say don't just learn that something works because of something, learn why it works because of that specific thing."

"You've got it! Stop freaking out, be constant and anticipate!"

20171214

Physics quiz question: expansion of aluminum rod

Physics 205A Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

An aluminum bar (linear expansion coefficient 2.3×10–5 K–1) has a length of 1.0000 m at 20.0° C. It will have a length of 1.0001 m at:
(A) 4° C.
(B) 16° C.
(C) 20.4° C.
(D) 24° C.

Correct answer: (D)

The relation between the change in length ∆L due to a temperature change ∆T is given by:

α·∆T = ∆L/L,

such that with an increase in length of ∆L = +0.0001 m, then:

T = ∆L/(α·L) = (+0.0001 m)/((2.3×10–5 K–1)·(1 m)) = +4.347826087 K,

or to one significant figure, the change in temperature is +4 K or +4° C, and so the bar will stretch by 0.0001 m when the temperature is 20.0° C + 4° C = 24° C.

(Response (A) is ΔT; response (B) is 20.0° C – ΔT; response (C) is 20.0° C + (ΔT/10).)

Sections 70854, 70855
Exam code: quiz07Whu7
(A) : 6 students
(B) : 2 students
(C) : 12 students
(D) : 22 students

Success level: 52%
Discrimination index (Aubrecht & Aubrecht, 1983): 0.59

Physics quiz question: comparing final temperatures

Physics 205A Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

An aluminum sample and an iron sample have the same mass and same initial temperature, and are kept separated from each other. Specific heat of aluminum is 900 J/(kg·K); specific heat of iron is 452 J/(kg·K). If the same amount of heat is transferred to each sample, the __________ sample will have a higher final temperature.
(A) aluminum.
(B) iron.
(C) (There is a tie.)
(D) (Not enough information is given.)

Correct answer (highlight to unhide): (B)

The transfer/balance energy conservation equation for each of these systems are given by:

Qext = ∆Ealuminum = maluminum·caluminum·ΔTaluminum,

and:

Qext = ∆Eiron = miron·ciron·ΔTiron.

For each sample and its corresponding equation, the mass m and heat Qext transferred is the same, so:

Qext = Qext,

maluminum·caluminum·ΔTaluminum = miron·ciron·ΔTiron,

caluminum·ΔTaluminum = ciron·ΔTiron,

and since caluminum > ciron, then ΔTaluminum < ΔTiron, and:

ΔTaluminum < ΔTiron,

(Taluminum,fTaluminum,0) < (Tiron,fTiron,0),

and since both samples have the same initial temperature Taluminum,0 = Tiron,0:

Taluminum,f < Tiron,f,

thus the iron sample will have the higher final temperature.

Sections 70854, 70855
Exam code: quiz07Whu7
(A) : 25 students
(B) : 13 students
(C) : 4 students
(D) : 0 students

Success level: 31%
Discrimination index (Aubrecht & Aubrecht, 1983): 0.36

Physics quiz question: comparing changes in internal energies

Physics 205A Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

An aluminum sample and an iron sample have the same mass. The aluminum sample initially has a higher temperature than the iron sample, and then they are brought in contact with each other to reach thermal equilibrium. Ignore heat exchanged with the environment. Specific heat of aluminum is 900 J/(kg·K); specific heat of iron is 452 J/(kg·K). After thermal equilibrium is reached, the __________ sample will have experienced the greatest change in internal energy.
(A) aluminum.
(B) iron.
(C) (There is a tie.)
(D) (Not enough information is given.)

Correct answer (highlight to unhide): (C)

The transfer/balance energy conservation equation for this system is given by:

Qext = ∆Ealuminum + ∆Eiron,

where for an isolated system, Qext = 0, so:

0 = ∆Ealuminum + ∆Eiron,

–∆Ealuminum = ∆Eiron.

This means that the aluminum sample experienced the same amount of thermal internal energy change (a decrease) as the change in the thermal internal energy of the iron sample (an increase).

Sections 70854, 70855
Exam code: quiz07Whu7
(A) : 7 students
(B) : 14 students
(C) : 19 students
(D) : 2 students

Success level: 45%
Discrimination index (Aubrecht & Aubrecht, 1983): 0.31

Physics quiz question: thermal conductivity of bubble wrap

Physics 205A Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

"Bubble Wrap"
Chrysti Hydeck
flic.kr/p/4wMG9t

A sheet of plastic bubble wrap (area of 0.56 m2, and thickness of 0.0065 m) has a thermal resistance of 0.43 K/watt[*]. The thermal conductivity of bubble wrap is:
(A) 0.0016 watts/m·K.
(B) 0.0050 watts/m·K.
(C) 0.027 watts/m·K.
(D) 37 watts/m·K.

[*] me.umn.edu/courses/me4054/archives/2013_Spring/S13_Design_Reports/S13%20Cushion%20V2.pdf.

Correct answer (highlight to unhide): (C)

The thermal resistance R of an object can be related to its thermal conductivity κ by:

R = d/(κ·A),

where d is the thickness of the object that heat must conduct through, and A is the cross-sectional area, such that the conductivity is given by:

κ = d/(R·A) = (0.0065 m)/((0.43 K/watt)·(0.56 m2)) = 0.02699335548 watts/m·K,

or to two significant figures, the thermal conductivity of the wall is 0.027 watts/m·K.

(Response (A) is d·R·A; response (B) is R/(A·d); response (D) is R·A/d).)

Sections 70854, 70855
Exam code: quiz07Whu7
(A) : 4 students
(B) : 3 students
(C) : 30 students
(D) : 5 students

Success level: 71%
Discrimination index (Aubrecht & Aubrecht, 1983): 0.53

Physics quiz question: rate of heat radiated by the sun

Physics 205A Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Stars can be modeled as spherical blackbodies that radiate heat out to an environment assumed to have a temperature of 0 K. The sun has a surface temperature of 5,772 K and a surface area of 6.09×1018 m2. The sun radiates heat per time at a rate of:
(A) 3.45×1011 watts.
(B) 1.11×1015 watts.
(C) 1.99×1015 watts.
(D) 3.83×1026 watts.

Correct answer (highlight to unhide): (D)

The net power radiated by the sun (where the negative sign indicates that heat is continuously leaving the surface of the sun) is given by:

Power = –e·σ·A·((T)4 – (Tenv)4),

where the emissitivity e = 1 (for an ideal blackbody), the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5.670×10–8 watts/(m2·K4), the surface area A = 6.09×1018 m2, the surface temperature T = 5,772 K, and the temperature of the environment is assumed to be Tenv = 0 K, such that the rate of heat radiated by the sun can be solved for:

Power = –(1)·(5.670×10–8 watts/(m2·K4)·(6.09×1018 m2)·((5,772 K)4 – (0)4),

Power = –3.832707188×1026 watts,

or to three significant figures, the rate of hate radiated per time from the sun is 3.83×1026 watts.

(Response (A) is A·σ; response (B) is T4; response (C) is e·σ·A·T.)

Sections 70854, 70855
Exam code: quiz07Whu7
(A) : 1 student
(B) : 3 students
(C) : 18 students
(D) : 20 students

Success level: 48%
Discrimination index (Aubrecht & Aubrecht, 1983): 0.66

Online reading assignment: origin of life, are we alone? (SLO campus)

Astronomy 210, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students have a weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. Selected results/questions/comments are addressed by the instructor at the start of the following lecture.

The following questions were asked on reading textbook chapters and previewing presentations on the origin of life, a "Here Is Today" timeline, LEGO® washing tips and the extraterrestrial hypothesis.

Selected/edited responses are given below.

Describe something you found interesting from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview, and explain why this was personally interesting for you.
"The theories and evidence used to test how single-celled organisms came to be on our planet was interesting since it's not something I've thought about since high school and it's cool trivia to remember."

"The fraction of the time humans existed in the world and having intelligence is so little. This means that the world was so very boring for very very very long time, rather than just having volcanoes exploding, etc."

"I've always been interested in discovering if life exists, out of this whole universe, there is no possible way that we are alone."

"Finding fossil remnants of single-cell colonies. It's amazing that we can still find cells that date back to over 3 billion years."

"It was mind-blowing to visually see how young we humans are compared to the universe."

"The 'Here is Today' website was very interesting, as it was cool to see how small we are in the timeline of this world."

"The 'Here is Today' website and the origin of life presentation. I think this is interesting because it puts our lives into perspective and how we're only a small sliver in the Earth's life."

"I found it interesting when you put in to perspective that humans are extremely recent newcomers to Earth."

"I found that the LEGO® washing thing was interesting, it makes me want to test it to see if it actually works. Also, I thought the 'Here is Today' webpage was neat."

"I thought the part about DNA and the chemical bases for all life on earth, was quite interesting. They were saying that a lifeform has a set of chemical codes called DNA, this is relevant to its parent lifeform, if that exists, and is also relevant to its environment and its own reactions and growth, to itself and surrounding habitate. I thought this was interesting because a lifeform can inheret DNA from a parent molecule, while can also adapt and evolve to its habitat due to environmental stratus."

"The slide comment: 'But to be completely honest, there will be one step in particular that has yet to be recreated or remnants to be found for, and we will be sure to point this out.' I really appreciated the academic honesty in this statement. That was interesting for me."

"I thought the Drake equation was the most interesting because of all the different factors that go into deciding if there is more life other than on Earth."

"The crop circle video from the early 2000s. Don't really think it's really another lifeform who made it, but it is interesting to say the least."

Describe something you found confusing from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview, and explain why this was personally confusing for you.
"What was confusing to me was the idea of different geologic time gaps taking less and less time to evolve. Not sure how it took longer to create single-cell organisms than for humans to evolve."

"Why did it take so long for single-cell organisms to become complex cells? I don't want to rush nature, but why did complex organisms start to show up at 0.6 billion years ago instead of an earlier time?"

"The Drake equation is really confusing, I don't understand it."

"The Drake equation, because of the many factors that are not accurate or either have no way of discovering."

"I started to get confused when all the crazy factors in the Drake equation to find out if we are alone (or not). This was confusing because these type of equations just frighten me at first."

"The Drake equation. There are just a lot of factors to keep track of."

"The choice for the 'fraction with intelligence' slide confused me, but that's basically it."

"Not much was that confusing, although just the sheer scales of the equations/fractions for the chance of us not being alone are mind-boggling."

"How radio signals can go in space, for thousands and millions of miles, I would think that radio signals would dissipate in the endless depth of space."

"The crop circle...like whaat?"

Briefly describe a difference between life and non-living things.
"Life is something that's able to reproduce, grow and made up of cells or multi living cells while non-living things do not have these factors such as rocks."

"Living things have cells that can evolve and change to adapt to the environment around them, unlike non-living things."

"Life is breathing, seeing, having experiences and adapting. When I think of non-living things I think of stillness."

"Non-living things are abiotic while living things are known as biotic."

"Living things should be able to to adapt to changes throughout its life and the things surrounding them."

"Non-living things are things that do not do anything to their environment."

"Life is living and non-living is well, non-living."

Rank the time it takes for each of the following to have occurred on Earth.
(Only correct responses shown.)
Time after the formation of Earth for single-cell life to arise: about 1 billion years [35%]
Time for the first types of simple single-cell life to evolve into fishlike creatures: about 3 billion years [65%]
Time for fishlike creatures to evolve into more complex land-based animals today: about 0.5 billion years [65%]

How important is it to you to know whether or not there may be life elsewhere other than on Earth?
Unimportant.  [0]
Of little importance.  ** [2]
Somewhat important.  ********** [10]
Important.  ********** [10]
Very important.  **** [4]

Briefly explain your answer regarding the importance of knowing whether there may be life elsewhere other than on Earth.
"It would be nice to discover other hospitable planets that are confirmed to at least host single-celled organisms, but it isn't something I'm holding my breath over."

"Finding life outside our planet is very important because this changes everything: our way of life, the way we see things, religion, etc. If we ever find lifeforms outside that are more intelligent and advanced than humans, it can be very dangerous and frightening."

"If it was possible for life to happen on Earth, there's gotta be life out there somewhere too."

"I mean it would be pretty cool but also very scary because what if they already know about us and just don't want to be found."

"I want to know simply because we don't know and it is such heavy question."

"It is important, but unless they come to us I won't see them in my lifetime."

"While it would be cool to know if there was more life out there, I'm not too sure if we should seek it out."

"It's important because eventually we won't be able to use Earth and we need to have a place. I feel like finding other life would be significant for learning."

"In order to better understand my real intended purpose here on earth, I need to know that we are not just some cosmic accident. I need to know the reason for being. Finding out that there is life elswhere in the universe would give me that; and I don't think I'm alone."

"I believe that there must be life out in the vast universe. I do not think it is relevant to Earth. We have our own planet, and have many problems to worry about. We should not be worried about whether or not there is alien life, our in the infinite universe. There are many people, beings, on our planet, that are already here, and they have neccesities too, like clean water to drink, and food to eat, and cures for common diseaes, like typhoid fever, polio, smallpox, AIDS, and Ebola. We should focus on Life on this planet, before we worry about aliens in space."

"Kinda cool but kinda creepy, idk."

Which type of star would be least likely to have a planet that could support life?
Massive.  ************ [12]
Medium-mass.  ** [2]
Low-mass (red dwarf).  ********** [10]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  ** [2]

Briefly explain your answer to the previous question (type of star least likely to have a planet that could support life).
"Massive stars will be too short lived for complex life to develop."

"I feel like massive stars would be too massive and bright and die too quickly for life to develop."

"Well, I'm assuming a medium-mass star would be ideal. A low-mass star would be living for a longer period of time; however it would not be very bright. A massive would be incredibly bright; however it would die off very quickly which would probably kill off whatever life would be existing."

"Low-mass stars live for a longer period of time but are much colder than other stars, even our star."

"Red dwarfs are so small they wouldn't have as much heat to give planets that orbit it that heat. Plus they are much smaller so less gravitational pull."

Describe what the Drake equation is used for.
"Estimating the number of advanced technological civilizations in the galaxy."

"The Drake equation multiplies many factors that reflect more and more restrictive conditions for an advanced technological civilization to arise...I think."

In your opinion, how plausible is it that the Chilbolton message is a reply from extraterrestrials?
Implausible.  * [1]
Not very plausible.  ************ [12]
Somewhat plausible.  *********** [11]
Very plausible.  * [1]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  * [1]

Ask the instructor an anonymous question, or make a comment. Selected questions/comments may be discussed in class.
"I need help on the Drake equation."

"Do you believe in other lifeforms outside of our galaxy?"

"Do you believe there are other lifeforms out there? Or that we will ever discover any?" (Yes, both probably just very simple life. I'm waiting to be surprised, though.)

"There's a 24-hour live stream of 1990's cooking shows online--Julia Childs is often on there--big fan lol. She looks hella young here." (#wellhello)

"Lion or tiger?" (What's wrong with ligers and lions?)

"Are you doing anything wild for winter break? (More adventures with Mrs. P-dog and Slumberjack, the Sleeping Forester.)

"Thanks for the class." (#yourewelcome #itsjustmywayofbeingme)

20171213

Physics quiz archive: temperature, thermal equilibrium, heat transfers

Physics 205A Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA
Sections 70854, 70855, version 1
Exam code: quiz07Whu7


Sections 70854, 70855 results
0- 6 :  
7-12 :   ******* [low = 9]
13-18 :   *************
19-24 :   ******************* [mean = 18.9 +/- 5.4]
25-30 :   *** [high = 27]

Astronomy quiz question: matter produced by past stars?

Astronomy 210 Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Another star, in the past produced the:
(A) hydrogen in red dwarfs.
(B) helium in the sun's core.
(C) iron in your blood.
(D) Milky Way's dark matter.
(E) (More than one of the above choices.)
(F) (None of the above choices.)

Correct answer (highlight to unhide): (C)

Stars produce metals (elements heavier than hydrogen and helium) in their cores during their giant/supergiant phases, up through type Ia/II supernovae explosions. Along with their unused hydrogen, these metals are then scattered into the interstellar medium, which are then incorporated into later generations of stars (or planets). Since iron is the only metal listed above, it is the only choice produced by a star in the past. (Dark matter is thought to have existed from the very early stages of the universe onwards, in order to facilitate the formation and maintain the structural integrity of galaxies.)

Section 70158
Exam code: quiz07Sl0p
(A) : 2 students
(B) : 4 students
(C) : 10 students
(D) : 0 student
(E) : 21 students
(F) : 4 students
(No response: 2 students)

Success level: 28% (including partial credit for multiple-choice)
Discrimination index (Aubrecht & Aubrecht, 1983): 0.38

Section 70160
Exam code: quiz07ni4N
(A) : 3 students
(B) : 0 students
(C) : 12 students
(D) : 0 students
(E) : 11 students
(F) : 2 students

Success level: 47% (including partial credit for multiple-choice)
Discrimination index (Aubrecht & Aubrecht, 1983): 0.43

Astronomy quiz archive: Milky Way, nucleosynthesis, cosmology

Astronomy 210 Quiz 7, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Section 70158, version 1
Exam code: quiz07Sl0p


Section 70158
0- 8.0 :  
8.5-16.0 :   ******** [low = 9.5]
16.5-24.0 :   ******************* [mean = 23.0 +/- 7.2]
24.5-32.0 :   **********
32.5-40.0 :   ****** [high = 36.5]


Section 70160, version 1
Exam code: quiz07ni4N


Section 70160
0- 8.0 :  
8.5-16.0 :   ****** [low = 10.0]
16.5-24.0 :   ********* [mean = 23.3 +/- 7.1]
24.5-32.0 :   ***********
32.5-40.0 :   ** [high = 33.0]

20171212

FCI pre-test to post-test comparison

Students at Cuesta College (San Luis Obispo, CA) were administered the 30-question Force Concept Inventory (David Hestenes, et al.) during the last week of instruction.

The pre- to post-test gain for this semester is:

Physics 205A fall semester 2017 sections 70854, 70855 (matched-pairs only, N = 43)
<initial%>= 30% ± 15%
<final%>= 38% ± 19%
<g>= 0.10 ± 0.23 (matched-pairs); 0.11 (class-wise)

The paired Student's t-test of the null hypothesis for Cuesta College FCI pre-test scores versus post-test scores results in p = 0.000 (t = –4.80, degrees of freedom = 42), thus there is a strongly statistically significant difference between Cuesta College FCI pre-test and post-test scores.

This Hake gain is comparable to (but slightly lower than) previous semesters' results for algebra-based introductory physics at Cuesta College (0.17-0.33), but similarly comparable to (but slightly lower than) previous gains for calculus-based introductory physics at Cuesta College (0.14-0.16), as discussed in previous postings on this blog.

Notable about this Physics 205A class at Cuesta College since fall semester 2015 is the presence of an embedded tutor (student teaching assistant circulating in class along with the instructor during open discussion and problem-solving sessions); and from fall semester 2014 onwards is the requirement that students read and answer questions on the textbook and lecture slides before coming to lecture (in a "flipped classroom"), instructor discussion in-class based on answering student questions and concerns submitted online previous to lecture, in-class problem-solving sessions ("lecture-tutorials," including ranking tasks, and a brief written explanation of a selected question submitted by each student every lecture), open-ended labs, and the continuing use (since fall semester 2011) of flashcards rather than electronic response system "clickers" (Classroom Performance System, einstruction.com), to engage in "think-pair-share" (peer-instruction).

D. Hestenes, M. Wells, and G. Swackhamer, Arizona State University, "Force Concept Inventory," Phys. Teach. 30, 141-158 (1992).
Development of the FCI, a 30-question survey of basic Newtonian mechanics concepts.

Previous FCI results (note only unpaired Student t-tests were run prior to 2017):

Online reading assignment: origin of life, are we alone? (NC campus)

Astronomy 210, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students have a weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. Selected results/questions/comments are addressed by the instructor at the start of the following lecture.

The following questions were asked on reading textbook chapters and previewing presentations on the origin of life, a "Here Is Today" timeline, LEGO® washing tips and the extraterrestrial hypothesis.


Selected/edited responses are given below.

Describe something you found interesting from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview, and explain why this was personally interesting for you.
"I personally found that the concept of 'are we alone?' to be very interesting because there is no way that, in an expansive universe, Earth is the only planet with life on it."

"The 'Here is Today' link, because it's crazy how long earth has been around and how long it took for humans to evolve and inhabit Earth."

"The timeline which shows how long life has been on Earth and how long it took for single cell organisms to change into multi-cellular organisms was interesting. Also, how drastically change was occurring towards the end of the timeline."

"Crop circles, because I am curious of how they got there. Whether it's due to UFOs or just people doing it."

"I found interesting that old stromatolites fossils where found on western Australia. They were 3.5 billion years old."

Describe something you found confusing from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview, and explain why this was personally confusing for you.
"Not really a confusing thought but could it be that we haven't had an visitors from another planet because when they view it, we may not even exist yet."

"The Drake equation confusing, I don't really understand how it works but I think that once you explain it in class it will be very interesting especially because I'm interesting in knowing if there's life in other planets and all of that."

"I found chemical evolution a little bit confusing. How did this first element copy itself to begin with? I don't understand how it would have that ability without conscious thought or some outside influence."

"How the crop field appeared overnight next to the Chilbolton radio observatory."

"I found the Drake equation confusing, of just how it is used."

"Nothing was really confusing except it does seem like there is a whole lot that isn't really certain."

"How do scientists know their dates are correct... It seems a bit sketchy to me."

"Why the Drake equation included parts of it that could not be scientifically proved. I mean, is it then a more theoretical equation..."

"The Drake equation and how to actually apply it to numbers."

Briefly describe a difference between life and non-living things.
"Life is the concept that molecules interact with each other in a specific environment and can perform certain actions whereas a non-living thing is an entity that simply acts through chemical processes."

"Life is being able to adapt or survive changes in the environment. Non-living things such as simple molecules can assemble naturally and in little time but it is still not life."

"Living things take energy from their environment (like food, water, sunlight) while non-living things do not."

"One difference between living and non-living things is that living things can manipulate its environment in order to survive and reproduce."

"Life is the process of evolving while non-living things do not."

"Living things adapt to, react to and change their environment. Non living things are simply part of the environment."

"Living things can breathe while non-living things do not."

"Living things adapt their environment."

"Life can manipulate its environment."

"Living things have cells, living things do not have cells."

"Life can evolve and progress and cont life. They learn survival techniques. Non-living are organisms living on earths ocean grounds rocks are not capable to reproduce quickly and evolve."

Rank the time it takes for each of the following to have occurred on Earth.
(Only correct responses shown.)
Time after the formation of Earth for single-cell life to arise: about 1 billion years [25%]
Time for the first types of simple single-cell life to evolve into fishlike creatures: about 3 billion years [25%]
Time for fishlike creatures to evolve into more complex land-based animals today: about 0.5 billion years [75%]

How important is it to you to know whether or not there may be life elsewhere other than on Earth?
Unimportant.  * [1]
Of little importance.  * [1]
Somewhat important.  ***** [5]
Important.  * [1]
Very important.  ***** [4]

Briefly explain your answer regarding the importance of knowing whether there may be life elsewhere other than on Earth.
"I just think that it would be very interesting to find out if life exists."

"I think it's important to know whether there's life elsewhere on other planets because if there is and there's a possibility that they may be more technologically advanced than us and have answers to certain things that we don't have answers to."

"It would be really cool to know about life on other planets. It also means that if we had to figure something out (which eventually, I think we will) post-apocalypse, we could possibly relocate over time. In the end though, it would also be really interesting to see that our planet is not necessarily special in terms of being able to support life."

"It would be interesting to know if there really is other intelligent life outside of Earth, but who knows what would occur if humans did come into contact with these creatures."

"I think if we found other life besides on Earth it could explain why we are here and how we got here which I think it probably the most important aspect of our lives here on Earth."

"We may not be able to prove it but there has to be some where out there."

"Life here has shown that where ever it CAN be, it is. From the harshest ocean depths at over 700° F at a volcanic vent, to the tops of the highest mountains, some form of life is existing and thriving. Tardigrades can survive in space! This basic principal, that where ever life can exist, it does, and with all of the potential building blocks for life tells me that in all of the universe, Earth cannot be the only life bearing rock. Knowing that leads me to some measure of acceptance that there is life out there."

"I am curious to know whether there is life elsewhere than Earth, but it's not something that I absolutely need to know."

"It would be cool if there was life elsewhere and it might answer some questions."

"I am not at all worried about whether there is life on any other planet, because it doesn't affect me at all."

"I mean, knowing that there are other civilizations out there? How cool is that?"

"It is just intresting to know if we humans, terrestrial planet creatures are unique or not. It kind of answers a lot of religion questions."

Which type of star would be least likely to have a planet that could support life?
Massive.  ****** [6]
Medium-mass.  [0]
Low-mass (red dwarf).  **** [4]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  ** [2]

Briefly explain your answer to the previous question (type of star least likely to have a planet that could support life).
"A red dwarf star is the coolest out of the three options so its ability to give off sufficient energy is limited."

"Massive stars burn fast and bright. Since it took billions of years for life on Earth to form, it's safe to assume that this is true for other planets. That means that massive stars wouldn't live long enough to sustain any evolution of complex lifeforms."

Describe what the Drake equation is used for.
"The Drake equation is used to estimate the number of advanced technological civilizations in the Milky Way."

"It's used to find other civilizations within our own galaxy that can communicate with humans. If technology lasts for a long time, then chances are probable."

In your opinion, how plausible is it that the Chilbolton message is a reply from extraterrestrials?
Implausible.  * [1]
Not very plausible.  **** [4]
Somewhat plausible.  ***** [5]
Very plausible.  [0]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  ** [2]

Ask the instructor an anonymous question, or make a comment. Selected questions/comments may be discussed in class.
"Can we review the chemical evolution of life? And why things can't be made out of elements other than carbon?"

"Do you think that there are hostile life-forms in the universe?"

"If extraterrestrials were going to respond to a message, how likely do you think it would be that they would use a crop circle?"

"No comment."

20171211

Online reading assignment: heat transfer applications

Physics 205A, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students have a bi-weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. Selected results/questions/comments are addressed by the instructor at the start of the following lecture.

The following questions were asked on reading textbook chapters and previewing a presentation on heat transfer applications.

Selected/edited responses are given below.

Describe what you understand from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview. Your description (2-3 sentences) should specifically demonstrate your level of understanding.
"I think the examples provided that show how heat can be applied helped leaven my understanding a bit. I think the best example for me was the 'Coffee Joulies' example because it reminds me a lot of the examples used in the last chapter. Unfortunately I have not yet given myself enough time at look at the textbook."

"That companies try and make products that transfer heat in order to try and make money."

"There are a lot of companies attempting to create products to inhibit or change temperature of objects."

"I learned what we will be doing in lab next week. We will be choosing which claim we will investigate, either testing the cooper cooler method, the coffee joulies method, or the space blanket."

"All of these applications seem really interesting. The most interesting was probably the insulation blanket since that has real world applications that could quite literally save some lives during snowfall. Granted, you would need pants and a jacket."

"There are several different technologies that have been created to either heat something up or cool something down. These consumer products claim to use innovative techniques."

"Examples of conduction, convection, and radiation were shown. The 'Cooper Cooler' is supposed to cool beverages via convection, 'Coffee Joulies' are supposed to cool and maintain coffee temperature at 140° F, and a space blanket is supposed to keep one warm by trapping and reflecting heat back to the user."

"I understand the idea of heat transfer, the different types of heat transfer, and energy transfer in this chapter. The various examples that we went over in class last Monday were very helpful in solidifying my understanding."

Describe what you found confusing from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview. Your description (2-3 sentences) should specifically identify the concept(s) that you do not understand.
"I'm still a little confused on the difference between convection, condition and radiation. I think I would benefit from some in class examples."

"I found the 'Coffee Joulies' to be confusing on how they work."

"Conduction vs. convection."

"Not very confused. Convection is the most difficult of the three heat transfers, though."

"Not much, it's mostly chemistry review."

The primary heat transfer process that the Cooper Cooler™ uses to chill beverages is:
conduction.  *************** [15]
convection.  ******************* [19]
radiation.  * [1]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  * [1]

How plausible do you think these claims for the Cooper Cooler™ are?
(Only modal responses shown.)
"Chills beverages on demand forty times faster than a freezer" : somewhat plausible [50%]
"Because it's spinning and not shaking your carbonated beverages, you don't have to worry about them exploding" : not very plausible [33%]

The primary heat transfer process that the Coffee Joulies™ uses to moderate and maintain coffee temperatures is:
conduction.  *********************** [23]
convection.  *********** [11]
radiation.  * [1]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  * [1]

How plausible do you think these claims for Coffee Joulies™ are?
(Only modal responses shown.)
"One 'bean' for every four ounces of coffee cools right down to 140° F in a few seconds": somewhat plausible [47%]
"Keeps coffee at 140° for two full hours": not very plausible [50%]

The primary heat loss process that a reflective space blanket is intended to minimize is:
conduction.  ******* [7]
convection.  ***** [5]
radiation.  ********************** [22]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  ** [2]

How plausible do you think these claims for a space blanket are?
(Only modal responses shown.)
"It reflects your body heat back to you" : somewhat plausible [67%]
"You still must have insulation between you and the blanket to minimize conductive heat loss" : very plausible [47%]

Ask the instructor an anonymous question, or make a comment. Selected questions/comments may be discussed in class.
"Is a practice final being posted or done in class?" (It's already posted under the "Final Exam" goals page.)

"Is it possible to have the correct answer of the first problem from the last midterm?" (It's already been posted under the "Midterm 2" goals page.)

"When did you say the grades would be updated before the final? Was it this coming Friday?" (This coming Saturday. However, your lab grades may not include the last few assignments, but that will be noted if that happens.)

20171208

Astronomy current events question: "Sónar Calling GJ273b" radio message

Astronomy 210L, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students are assigned to read online articles on current astronomy events, and take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab. (This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!)
Enrichetta Cardinale, "Sónar Celebrates 25 years of the Festival by Contacting Intelligent Extraterrestial Life" (November 16, 2017)
intranet.sonar.es/mailing/1128/en.html
"Sónar Calling GJ273b" was a radio message containing __________ sent to a potentially habitable exoplanet orbiting Luyten's Star b.
(A) DNA sequences.
(B) dolphin and whale sounds.
(C) solar flare interference.
(D) computer malware.
(E) music samples.

Correct answer: (E)

Student responses
Sections 70178, 70186
(A) : 3 students
(B) : 1 student
(C) : 5 students
(D) : 1 student
(E) : 34 students

Astronomy current events question: supernova SN 2014J light echo

Astronomy 210L, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students are assigned to read online articles on current astronomy events, and take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab. (This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!)
Donna Weaver, Ray Villard, and Yi Yang, "Hubble Movie Shows Movement of Light Echo Around Exploded Star" (November 9, 2017)
hubblesite.org/news_release/news/2017-42
A "light echo" in galaxy M82 is caused by light from the supernova SN 2014J being reflected by:
(A) a huge dust cloud.
(B) gravitational waves.
(C) curved spacetime.
(D) its own asteroid belt.
(E) antimatter.

Correct answer: (A)

Student responses
Sections 70178, 70186
(A) : 31 students
(B) : 8 students
(C) : 1 student
(D) : 2 students
(E) : 2 students

Astronomy current events question: dwarf galaxy NGC 4625's single spiral arm

Astronomy 210L, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students are assigned to read online articles on current astronomy events, and take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab. (This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!)
Karl Hille, "Hubble’s Cosmic Search for a Missing Arm" (November 17, 2017)
nasa.gov/image-feature/goddard/2017/hubbles-cosmic-search-for-a-missing-arm
The single spiral arm structure and young outer region star formation in dwarf galaxy NGC 4625 were caused by gravitational interactions from:
(A) its supermassive black hole.
(B) type II supernova explosions.
(C) intense ultraviolet light.
(D) another dwarf galaxy.
(E) dark matter.

Correct answer: (D)

Student responses
Sections 70178, 70186
(A) : 2 students
(B) : 7 students
(C) : 8 students
(D) : 28 students
(E) : 0 students

20171206

Online reading assignment: Milky Way history, big bang clues (SLO campus)

Astronomy 210, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students have a weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. Selected results/questions/comments are addressed by the instructor at the start of the following lecture.

The following questions were asked on reading textbook chapters and previewing presentations on the history of the Milky Way and big bang clues, a comic strip adaptation of Neil deGrasse Tyson's "The Most Astounding Fact" 2008 interview for TIME magazine, and Minute Physics' video explanation of Olbers' paradox.


Selected/edited responses are given below.

Describe something you found interesting from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview, and explain why this was personally interesting for you.
"Old stars tend to have less metal in their core and young stars have more from the old stars' type II supernovae. So, could the big bang could have been from the collective amount of stars exploding instead of one giant explosion?"

"I thought that both sections on the online blog were very interesting. The origins of life through the big bang and the origins of our milky way are both amazing scientific thinking points. I've had an interest in both of these philosophically for my entire life. Most people do I would hope."

"I thought it was really interesting to think about how we are all just star dust. This is just an awesome thing to brag about."

"The big bang, because the stars and space is basically a time machine. so looking at the stars can help us really dig deep and figure it out."

"That the universe is actually really old, and the atoms in our body are also really old."

"The big bang because it's like, wow. That just happened."

"Elements that make up the universe also make up life."

"When we look up into the night sky to see a star that is a certain amount of light years away, we are not seeing it at that current moment, but in fact we are seeing it in the past."

"How we are made out of dirt. Interesting because I never thought about how kind of everything in the universe is made out up from dirt. It's a new perspective."

"I think it is interesting how we use the term 'dirty' to describe space. Because when I look at it I see pretty."

"I found the concept of telescopes as time machines to be interesting. It's strange to think that we are never seeing the sky as it is, only as it has been in the past."

Describe something you found confusing from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview, and explain why this was personally confusing for you.
"So if young stars are having more metal as the older generations uses up the hydrogen, will all stars at some point gradually have a smaller lifespan?"

"I found the concept of a continually expanding universe to be a bit confusing. If galaxies are spread out from one original center-point why is there unequal space between them?"

"I thought the idea of the universe being infinite was confusing. How is that possible?"

"What I thought was confusing was the video on how we can't see stars at are more light years than how old our earth is because their light hasn't had time to reach us yet or because they appear infrared to us so we can't see it."

"Age is confusing because how do we know that the stars are actually that old is there anything that can accurately tell us the age of the star?"

"Metallicity (not 'Metallica'--auto-correct, come on). I couldn't quite understand how the universe could only start with only hydrogen, and gradually create more metals as it grows."

"Gaps and edges in the universe were confusing to understand."

"I still find it confusing how we are made of stuff from 'stardust.' The concept just doesn't make sense to me but how the world and people formed has always confused me."

"Lookback time, I don't completely understand how it exists."

"The whole metallicity topic is quite confusing to me."

"How time (and distance) work in space."

Indicate how the amount of these elements in the universe have changed over time.
(Only correct responses shown.)
Hydrogen: decreased [50%]
Metals (elements heavier than hydrogen and helium): increased [77%]

The outermost layers of __________ are more abundant in metals (elements heavier than hydrogen and helium).
extremely old stars that formed a long time ago.  ***** [5]
young stars that formed very recently.  ****************** [18]
(There is a tie.)  [0]
(Neither, as stars cannot have metals.)  [0]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  *** [3]

Indicate what produced these elements.
(Only correct responses shown.)
Hydrogen in the sun's core: the very early universe [58%]
Helium in the sun's core: the sun [31%]
Carbon in your body: another star, in the past [61%]
Calcium in your bones: another star, in the past [50%]
Iron in your blood: another star, in the past [62%]
Gold and silver from mines: another star, in the past [39%]

Ask the instructor an anonymous question, or make a comment. Selected questions/comments may be discussed in class.
"Can we go over everything in class please? If Star Wars opens with "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away", yet they already had space travel and laser weapons, how far behind them are we?" (What if that movie is just using human actors to portray the history of an alien civilization a long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away?)

"How many questions will be on the final exam?" (Same number of questions as a midterm; but covering a wider range of topics. The specific study guide for the final exam is already posted on the course website.)

"Do you believe in the big bang theory?" (I think it's fair to say that I understand the evidence--and I think it's fair in this class to teach you and test your understanding of the evidence as well.)

"So stars that are moving towards us are blue shifted and stars that are moving away from us are red shifted?" (Or more specifically, the wavelength values of their absorption lines are shifted slightly toward the blue or the red end of the visible light spectrum.)

"Do you have anything fun planned for winter break?" (More of stuff like this.)

20171205

Online reading assignment: heat transfers

Physics 205A, fall semester 2017
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students have a bi- weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. Selected results/questions/comments are addressed by the instructor at the start of the following lecture.

The following questions were asked on reading textbook chapters and previewing a presentation on heat transfers.


Selected/edited responses are given below.

Describe what you understand from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview. Your description (2-3 sentences) should specifically demonstrate your level of understanding.
"I understand that the difference in colors changes the amount of radiative heat that is absorbed."

"I understand the three forms of heat transfers: conduction, convection, and radiation."

"The power through a wall is proportional to the temperature difference.As per the zeroth law of thermodynamics, heat flows from high to low temperatures!"

"Convection is the process of fluids carrying heat and conduction is heat passing directly through an object. The power of heat is stronger with a greater change in temperature and minimal resistance. Radiation is energy carried by electromagnetic waves."

"The first thing I learned is that heating chocolate bunnies is extremely funny for some reason. I also learned that convection, conduction and radiation are types of heat transfers that transport heat. Convection uses circulating air, conduction transfers through an object and radiation is in the form of light."

"There are different types of heat transfers conduction, convection and radiation. In conduction, heat is transferred through an object, e.g. when your mom says don’t touch the stove because it’s hot but you really want that mac-n-cheese and you touch it anyway and burn yourself on the stove. In convection, heat transfers with the circulation of air, e.g. old fashioned radiator it takes in cool air at the bottom and produces hot air through the top. In radiation heat is transported in the form of light, e.g. soaking in the sun on a nice beach day (I miss summer)."

"Conduction is when heat is transferred through an object; convection is when heat is circulated in the air; radiation is when heat is transferred as light."

"Insulation thickness makes it more resistant to heat. The conductivity is the opposite, transferring heat faster through the material."

"I have noted and understand the differences between convection, conduction, and radiation. Blackbodies are good absorbers and therefore are good emitters. Emissivity is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1 that is the ratio of the energy an object actually radiates to what it would radiate."

"Black absorbs; white reflects."

Describe what you found confusing from the assigned textbook reading or presentation preview. Your description (2-3 sentences) should specifically identify the concept(s) that you do not understand.
"I found the equations confusing."

"Fourier's law confuses me."

"I am a little confused about conductivity and how it affects thermal resistance. Im sure once its explained in class it will be much clearer."

"I haven't given myself quite enough time to figure out what exactly don't understand because everything seems a little confusing. I do think that maybe i'd like to better understand thermal resistance."

"All and all in made sense. The part that somewhat got confusing was the formulas. More specifically with the applications. What each of the variables mean."

"I found Stepfan's law more confusing. I would appreciate some review on how this works."

"Colors affecting radiative absorption?"

In order to maximize the thermal resistance of these exterior walls, should the following parameters be minimized, maximized (or has no effect)?
(Only correct responses shown.)
insulation thickness d: maximize [82%]
insulation conductivity κ: minimize [64%]
Total surface area A exposed to the outdoors: minimize [61%]

In order to minimize the amount of heat flowing per time through these exterior walls, should the following parameters be minimized, maximized (or has no effect)?
(Only correct responses shown.)
temperature difference ∆T between indoors and outdoors: minimize [63%]
thermal resistance R of the walls: maximize [72%]

For these two Leica M cameras, if they are both cooler than the surrounding environment, both will begin to heat up by absorbing radiative heat (say, from the sun). The __________ model have a faster rate of heat absorbed per time.
black.  *************************** [27]
silver.  **** [4]
(There is a tie.)  [0]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  ** [2]

For these snowboarders, if they are warmer than the surrounding environment, they will begin to cool down by emitting radiative heat (say, to the overcast sky and the snowy landscape). The snowboarder wearing the __________ jacket will have a faster rate of heat radiated per time.
black.  ****************** [18]
silver.  *********** [11]
(There is a tie.)  ** [2]
(Unsure/guessing/lost/help!)  ** [2]

Ask the instructor an anonymous question, or make a comment. Selected questions/comments may be discussed in class.
"Everything progressively gets more interesting. I'm excited for Physics 205B!"

"As a welder I work with heat quite a bit."

"Is the zeroth law of thermodynamic is the equilibrium of temperatures?" (Yes. Surprisingly, it is not a trivial law.)

"Does heat always flow from high temperatures to low temperatures?" (Yes, all by itself. However, if you want heat to flow from low temperatures to high temperatures (in order to cool down your refrigerator, or use air conditioning to cool down your house), then you will need to spend energy in the form of work to move heat "opposite of the way it wants to go." Also heat pumps will move heat from low temperatures to high temperatures in order to extract energy from the cool environment to heat your house, but this again requires you to spend energy in the form of work to move heat "opposite of the way it wants to go.")

"You know me just a run down of the formulas would be greatttttt." (Mmmmkay.)