This golf ball is initially at rest, so its initial momentum p0 (mass times its initial velocity) is 0.
We'll define the horizontal direction to be positive to the right (and negative to the left). After it is hit by the golf club, its final momentum (mass times its final velocity) pf points to the right (and will be a positive quantity).
The initial-to-final change in momentum ∆p of the golf ball is given by:
∆p = pf – p0,
and since get a positive quantity minus zero, then ∆p must be positive (thus pointing to the right).
Since the impulse "J" on the golf ball causes this initial-to-final change in momentum:
"J" = ∆p,
the impulse must also have the same direction as ∆p, and so it must also point to the right. (Also since the impulse "J" is the net force ΣF on the golf ball times the contact time ∆t, the net force of the golf club on the golf ball is also directed to the right.)
Super Hornet's initial momentum p0 direction? (left (–), none (0), or right (+)?)
Super Hornet's final momentum pf direction?
Direction of Super Hornet's initial-to-final change in momentum ∆p?
Direction of catapult's impulse "J" on the Super Hornet?
Ford Ranger's initial momentum p0 direction? (left (–), none (0), or right (+)?)
Ford Ranger's final momentum pf direction?
Direction of Ford Ranger's initial-to-final change in momentum ∆p?
(Hint: watch your signs!)
Direction of crash barrier's impulse "J" on the Ford Ranger?