20110131

Astronomy current events question: Hanny's Voorwerp

Astronomy 210L, Spring Semester 2011
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students are assigned to read online articles on current astronomy events, and take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab. (This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!)
Astronomy.com editors, "Hubble Zooms in on a Space Oddity," January 11, 2011
http://astronomy.com/en/News-Observing/News/2011/01/Hubble%20zooms%20in%20on%20a%20space%20oddity.aspx
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is observing Hanny's Voorwerp, which is thought to be a:
(A) rapidly shrinking black hole.
(B) giant gas filament illuminated by a quasar beam.
(C) potential source of intelligent radio signals.
(D) dwarf planet slightly larger than Pluto.
(E) comet or asteroid that may impact Earth in 2012.

Correct answer: (B)

Student responses
Sections 30678, 30679, 30680
(A) : 3 students
(B) : 13 students
(C) : 0 students
(D) : 0 students
(E) : 1 student

20110130

Astronomy current events question: thunderstorm-generated antimatter beams

Astronomy 210L, Spring Semester 2011
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students are assigned to read online articles on current astronomy events, and take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab. (This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!)
Robert Naeye, "Thunderstorms That Shoot Antimatter," January 11, 2011
http://www.skyandtelescope.com/news/113274169.html
NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently discovered that thunderstorms on Earth:
(A) produce antimatter beams that shoot into space.
(B) prevent runaway global warming.
(C) create temporary miniature black holes.
(D) could soon signal a magnetic pole reversal.
(E) may be caused by cosmic rays from space.

Correct answer: (A)

Student responses
Sections 30678, 30679, 30680
(A) : 24 students
(B) : 1 student
(C) : 0 students
(D) : 2 students
(E) : 8 students

20110129

Astronomy current events question: Spirit rover incommunicado?

Astronomy 210L, Spring Semester 2011
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students are assigned to read online articles on current astronomy events, and take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab. (This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!)
Guy Webster, "NASA Checking on Rover Spirit During Martian Spring," November 4, 2010
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mer/news/mer20110104.html
Why might the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit no longer be able to contact NASA mission controllers?
(A) Batteries damaged by cold.
(B) Too much solar power.
(C) A massive dust storm.
(D) Covered over with dry ice snow.
(E) A massive solar flare.

Correct answer: (A)

Student responses
Sections 30678, 30679, 30680
(A) : 9 students
(B) : 0 students
(C) : 2 students
(D) : 2 students
(E) : 5 students

20110128

Astronomy current events question: planet Kepler 10b discovery

Astronomy 210L, Spring Semester 2011
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students are assigned to read online articles on current astronomy events, and take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab. (This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!)
Rachel Hoover and Trent J. Perrotto, "NASA'S Kepler Mission Discovers Its First Rocky Planet," January 10, 2011
http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/rocky_planet.html
The smallest known rocky planet was discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission space-based telescope observing this planet __________ its star.
(A) reflecting light from.
(B) gravitationally wobbling.
(C) crossing in front of.
(D) swallowed up by.
(E) slowly melted by.

Correct answer: (C)

Student responses
Sections 30678, 30679, 30680
(A) : 8 students
(B) : 3 students
(C) : 7 students
(D) : 0 students
(E) : 0 students

20110125

Backwards faded scaffolding laboratory/presentation: measurement and proportion

This is the first laboratory at the start of the semester of Astronomy 210L at Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA. This course is a one-semester, optional adjunct laboratory to the Astronomy 210 introductory astronomy lecture, taken primarily by students to satisfy their general education science transfer requirement.

Students are instructed on how to prepare for each weekly laboratory.

Students answer short weekly pre-lab assignments, hosted by SurveyMonkey.com.

Like Will Smith in the movie I Am Legend, students are required to look up today's sunrise and sunset times. Because as in the movie, in astronomy it is important to know when it is safe and when the zombie vampires are out there.

Students also need to look up the current phase of the moon, as knowing when the werewolves are out and about is important, too.

Students are also assigned to read selected online articles on current events in astronomy. One never knows when it might be important to convince alien abductors that Earth technology and space exploration is sufficiently advanced enough to avoid being probed like cattle.

Students take a short current events quiz during the first 10 minutes of lab on sunrise/sunset times (to within +/- 10 minutes), moon phase, and multiple-choice questions on selected astronomy news articles. This motivates students to show up promptly to lab, as the time cut-off for the quiz is strictly enforced!

Students are to work in assigned groups of 3-4 on measuring and analyzing their heights and arm spans. This is intended to be a simple activity to introduce students to working cooperatively and collaboratively on "Exploration" and "Does Evidence Match a Given Conclusion?" segments of backwards-folded scaffolding laboratories (Tim Slater, Stephanie Slater, Daniel J. Lyons, Engaging in Astronomical Inquiry, W.H. Freeman & Company, New York, 2010). Subsequent laboratories will incorporate more complete "What Conclusions Can You Draw From This Evidence?" and "What Evidence Do You Need to Pursue?" and "Formulate a Question, Pursue Evidence, and Justify Your Conclusion" sections of a complete backwards-folded scaffolded laboratory.

Purportedly the perfect human proportions are where arm spans are equal to heights. These people are called "Da Vincis."

However, "T. rexes" are people whose arm spans are shorter than heights.

Meanwhile, "monkeys" are people whose arm spans are longer than their heights. These are the people who you want covering your back in a barroom brawl.

Students check out laptops to access the course webpage, where the laboratory instructions are posted (in lieu of a printed laboratory manual). (Subsequent backwards-faded scaffolded laboratories make more explicit use of online resources for data acquisition and analysis.)

2-m sticks will be used to make measurements to the nearest centimeter.

Everyone should take off their shoes in order to measure each other's heights (to the nearest centimeter).

Also measure each other's arm spans (to the nearest centimeter).

Record your measurements on a whiteboard, and place it up at the front of the classroom.

When all tasks have been completed, all students should come to the instructor as a group and lay their reports on the counter. A four-sided die is rolled to see which one report will be representatively graded for the group.

EQUIPMENT
Cuesta ThinkPad(TM) laptops (wireless networking, internet browser)
(appropriate, responsible in-class use of personal laptops allowed)
meter sticks (2 m)

BIG IDEA
Individual measurements can be statistically analyzed together to identify trends and patterns.

GOAL
Students will conduct a series of inquiries about biometric measurements, as an introduction to backwards-scaffolded astronomy inquiry laboratories.

TASKS
1. Exploration
Using a 2-m stick to measure the heights and arm spans, you will categorize each class member (anonymously) in terms of relative proportions.

a. Take off your shoes, and take turns measuring each group member's heights and arm spans using a 2-m stick, to the nearest centimeter.
Student: Height: Arm span:
1 ___ cm ___ cm
2 ___ cm ___ cm
3 ___ cm ___ cm
4 ___ cm ___ cm

b. Record each group members' height and arm span information on a whiteboard, and place this at the front of the classroom. (Use group and student numbers instead of student names to identify individual height and arm span data.)

c. Categorize each student in your class as a tall rectangle (height greater than arm span), square (height equal to arm span), or wide rectangle (height less than arm span). Count the total numbers of tall, square, and wide students in the classroom.

Number of tall rectangle students: __________.
Number of square students: __________.
Number of wide rectangle students: __________.

d. Make generalization statements, in a complete sentences, comparing the numbers of tall, square, and wide students in your classroom.

Generalization statements: __________.

e. Calculate the average height for your class (to the nearest centimeter), and the average arm span for your class (to the nearest centimeter).

Average height: __________.
Average arm span: __________.

f. Categorize each student in the class as either below/above average height, and also either below/above average arm span. (Also note any student(s) that may have an exact average height and/or arm span, to the nearest centimeter.) Keep a record of your results in the tally sheet below using tick marks.

Below average height, below average arm span: _____
Below average height, above average arm span: _____
Above average height, below average arm span: _____
Above average height, above average arm span: _____
Average height and/or average arm span: _____

Each person in your group should write up their own Exploration answers, to be turned in today and selected randomly to be graded for their group(*).

2. Does Evidence Match a Given Conclusion?
Consider the following generalization statements:
  1. "People are equally distributed between below-average and above-average height."
  2. "People are equally distributed between below-average and above-average arm spans."
  3. "People with above-average heights tend to have above-average arm spans."
For each of these generalization statements, agree or disagree based on the evidence obtained for your class. Cite specific numbers from your data to support or refute each statement, and explain your reasoning based on these specific numbers.
Write up your discussion on whiteboards(*), to be worked on and presented as a group.

References:

20110124

Found physics: frozen treat arcade crane

20101223796
http://www.flickr.com/photos/waiferx/5384723889/
Originally uploaded by Waifer X

20101223797
http://www.flickr.com/photos/waiferx/5384724079/
Originally uploaded by Waifer X

Frozen desert crane, Fun Factory arcade, Pearlridge Shopping Center, 'Aiea, HI. Photo by Cuesta College Physical Sciences Division instructor Dr. Patrick M. Len.

20110118

Astronomy in-class activity: planet-hunting

Astronomy 210 In-class activity 6 v.11.01.04, spring semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

Students find their assigned groups of three to four students, and work cooperatively on an in-class activity worksheet to determine where in the sky each naked-eye planet will be observed on a given date (here, February 2, 2011).




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20110117

Astronomy final exam question: Earth in Kuiper belt?

Astronomy 210 Final Exam, fall semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

[20 points.] In an open letter to the 27th International Astronomical Union General Assembly, an amateur astronomer advocated against Pluto's planet demotion:
"If Earth were in Pluto's orbit, according to [the IAU classification scheme], it would not be considered a planet either."
--Laurel E. Kornfeld, http://laurele.livejournal.com/10429.html, August 6, 2009.
Decide whether this statement is correct or incorrect, and how you know this. Explain using the International Astronomical Union classification scheme.

Solution and grading rubric:
  • p = 20/20:
    Correct. Pluto only satisfies the first two of the three requirements (orbits the sun, has a rounded shape, cleared/dominates its orbit) to be a planet. The online comment could either be considered incorrect or correct, depending on whether Earth would be able to dominate or not dominate Kuiper belt objects near its new orbit (the degree of which is beyond the scope of this course).
  • r = 16/20:
    Nearly correct (explanation weak, unclear or only nearly complete); includes extraneous/tangential information; or has minor errors. Discussion of IAU requirements, or why online comment is incorrect/correct is not clear.
  • t = 12/20:
    Contains right ideas, but discussion is unclear/incomplete or contains major errors. Problematic discussion of IAU requirements and why online comment is incorrect/correct.
  • v = 8/20:
    Limited relevant discussion of supporting evidence of at least some merit, but in an inconsistent or unclear manner. Discussion of criteria only tangentially related to the IAU requirements.
  • x = 4/20:
    Implementation/application of ideas, but credit given for effort rather than merit. Discussion of criteria unrelated to the IAU requirements.
    y = 2/20: Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • y = 2/20:
    Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • z = 0/20:
    Blank.
Grading distribution:
Section 70158
p: 30 students
r: 7 students
t: 2 student
v: 2 students
x: 1 student
y: 0 students
z: 1 student

A sample "p" response (from student 3272), discussing how the statement is incorrect:

A sample "p" response (from student 2369), discussing instead how the statement is correct:

A sample "p" response (from student 1234), recognizing that the statement may be correct or incorrect, but more information is needed to determine the extent of Earth's influence on Kuiper belt objects:

20110116

Astronomy final exam question: Mars closer to sun?

Astronomy 210 Final Exam, Fall Semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

[20 points.] Suppose Mars had instead formed closer to the sun, in Venus' orbit. Explain the expected characteristics of this closer-to-the-sun Mars, in terms of its internal heat and geological activity, compared to Mars today in its current orbit.

Solution and grading rubric:
  • p = 20/20:
    Correct. Extent of internal heat and geological activity of a terrestrial planet depends on its mass, thus Mars would essentially have the same amount of internal heat and geological activity at any distance from the sun.
  • r = 16/20:
    Nearly correct (explanation weak, unclear or only nearly complete); includes extraneous/tangential information; or has minor errors.
  • t = 12/20:
    Contains right ideas, but discussion is unclear/incomplete or contains major errors. At least recognizes that internal heat and geological activity is correlated with mass.
  • v = 8/20:
    Limited relevant discussion of supporting evidence of at least some merit, but in an inconsistent or unclear manner. Discussion based closer proximity to the sun creating more greenhouse effect and/or more geological activity.
  • x = 4/20:
    Implementation/application of ideas, but credit given for effort rather than merit. Decides on same/different relative amount of internal heat and geological activity without supporting statements.
  • y = 2/20:
    Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • z = 0/20:
    Blank.
Grading distribution:
Section 70158
p: 4 students
r: 3 students
t: 2 students
v: 29 students
x: 3 students
y: 0 students
z: 1 student

A sample "p" response (from student 1122):

A sample "v" response (from student 4321), discussing how more heat from the sun would cause more volcanic activity:

Another sample "v" response (from student 1986), again discussing how more heat from the sun would cause more volcanic activity:

20110115

Astronomy final exam question: supergiants cooler and dimmer than giants?

Astronomy 210 Final Exam, Fall Semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

[20 points.] An astronomy question on an online discussion board (http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090417123734AAHUYUu) was asked and answered:
XxalicexX: What is the difference between a giant star and supergiant star?

Delta V: Supergiant stars are...cooler, and dimmer than giant stars.
Discuss whether or not if this answer is correct, and how you know this. Explain using the Stefan-Boltzmann law and/or an H-R diagram.

Solution and grading rubric:
  • p = 20/20:
    Correct. Discusses why statement is incorrect as while supergiants can be cooler than giants, supergiants must always be brighter (more luminous) than giants, based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law and/or interpreting an H-R diagram.
  • r = 16/20:
    Nearly correct (explanation weak, unclear or only nearly complete); includes extraneous/tangential information; or has minor errors.
  • t = 12/20:
    Contains right ideas, but discussion is unclear/incomplete or contains major errors. Some merit in applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law and/or interpreting an H-R diagram.
  • v = 8/20:
    Limited relevant discussion of supporting evidence of at least some merit, but in an inconsistent or unclear manner. At least some attempt in applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law and/or interpreting an H-R diagram.
  • x = 4/20:
    Implementation/application of ideas, but credit given for effort rather than merit. Arguments used other than the Stefan-Boltzmann law and/or H-R diagram, despite being instructed to.
    y = 2/20: Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • y = 2/20:
    Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • z = 0/20:
    Blank.
Grading distribution:
Section 70158
p: 31 students
r: 2 students
t: 5 students
v: 1 student
x: 3 students
y: 0 students
z: 0 students

A sample "p" response (from student 1992), using an H-R diagram:

Another sample "p" response (from student 0404), using a graphical chart form of the Stefan-Boltzmann law:

A sample "p" response (from student 0302), with various graphical Stefan-Boltzmann law charts, and a kudos for the instructor:

20110114

Astronomy final exam question: Interpreting IAU classification of Pluto

Astronomy 210 Final Exam, Fall Semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

[20 points.] An astronomy question on an online discussion board (http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20060816202219AA5qzCL) was asked and answered:
ne0aes0p: Why is Pluto not a planet anymore?

crown1114: Well, because based on [the IAU] definition of a planet, Pluto...satisfies only 1 criteria and according to them, 2 criteria must be satisfied in order to be called a planet.
Discuss whether this statement is correct or incorrect, and how you know this. Explain using the International Astronomical Union classification scheme.

Solution and grading rubric:
  • p = 20/20:
    Correct. The online comment is incorrect, as Pluto needs to satisfy three requirements (orbits the sun, has a rounded shape, cleared/dominates its orbit) to be a planet, of which only the first two are actually satisfied.
  • r = 16/20:
    Nearly correct (explanation weak, unclear or only nearly complete); includes extraneous/tangential information; or has minor errors. Discussion of IAU requirements, or why online comment is incorrect is not clear.
  • t = 12/20:
    Contains right ideas, but discussion is unclear/incomplete or contains major errors. Problematic discussion of IAU requirements and why online comment is incorrect.
  • v = 8/20:
    Limited relevant discussion of supporting evidence of at least some merit, but in an inconsistent or unclear manner. Discussion of criteria only tangentially related to the IAU requirements.
  • x = 4/20:
    Implementation/application of ideas, but credit given for effort rather than merit. Discussion of criteria unrelated to the IAU requirements.
  • y = 2/20:
    Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • z = 0/20:
    Blank.
Grading distribution:
Section 70160
p: 25 students
r: 5 students
t: 4 students
v: 1 student
x: 2 students
y: 0 students
z: 1 student

A sample "p" response (from student 7133), successfully applying a recreation of the IAU classification flowchart from memory:

Another sample "p" response (from student 9890), with a personal opinion regarding Pluto:

Another sample "p" response (from student 0802), with another personal opinion about Pluto, and kudos for the instructor:

20110113

Astronomy final exam question: Earth vs. moon rock sample ages

Astronomy 210 Final Exam, Fall Semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

[20 points.] Why do rock samples from the moon's surface have older radioactive dating ages than rock samples from the Earth's ocean bottoms? Explain by discussing properties of planets, and radioactive dating ages.

Solution and grading rubric:
  • p = 20/20:
    Correct. Primarily understands renewal versus static nature of Earth's and the moon's surfaces, with at least some discussion of how radioactive dating is "reset" by melting.
  • r = 16/20:
    Nearly correct (explanation weak, unclear or only nearly complete); includes extraneous/tangential information; or has minor errors. Radioactive dating "reset" discussion is missing or only implied.
  • t = 12/20:
    Contains right ideas, but discussion is unclear/incomplete or contains major errors. At least recognizes the relative activities of Earth's and the moon's surfaces, but may involve volcanism rather than plate tectonics.
  • v = 8/20:
    Limited relevant discussion of supporting evidence of at least some merit, but in an inconsistent or unclear manner. Discussion based on "wear and tear," "exposure," or moon formation theories.
  • x = 4/20:
    Implementation/application of ideas, but credit given for effort rather than merit.
    y = 2/20: Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • y = 2/20:
    Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • z = 0/20:
    Blank.
Grading distribution:
Section 70160
p: 7 students
r: 12 students
t: 6 students
v: 10 students
x: 1 student
y: 1 student
z: 1 student

A sample "p" response (from student 1111):

Another sample "p" response (from student 1104):

Yet another sample "p" response (from student 0307):

A sample "v" response (from student 0001), discussing wear and tear on the moon:

A sample "v" response (from student 1919), discussing the fission theory of the formation of the moon:

A sample "v" response (from student 8008), discussing the large impact theory of the formation of the moon:

20110112

Astronomy final exam question: T Pyxidis

Astronomy 210 Final Exam, Fall Semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

[20 points.] Earlier this year, an online news journal published an article discussing T Pyxidis, located approximately 1,000 parsecs away:
A star primed to explode in a blast that could wipe out...Earth was revealed by astronomers... [T Pyxidis] will self-destruct in an explosion called a [type Ia] supernova with the force of 20 billion billion billion megatons of TNT...


The blast from the thermonuclear explosion could strip away our ozone layer that keeps out deadly space radiation. Life on Earth would then be frazzled...


Experts said the Hubble space telescope has photographed the star gearing up for its big bang with a series of smaller blasts or "burps", called novas...
--Paul Sutherland, "The Death Star," The Sun, January 6, 2010, http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/2795981/Supernova-may-wipe-out-the-Earth.html.

T Pyxidis is actually known to be a binary star system. Discuss specifically the type of star in the T Pyxidis system that "burps" and may eventually "self-destruct," and why this star is doing this. Explain using the properties of binary star systems, compact objects, novae and type Ia supenovae.

Solution and grading rubric:
  • p = 20/20:
    Correct. Discusses a companion star is feeding hydrogen to a white dwarf, which fuses its outer hydrogen shell and explodes periodically as a nova, and may eventually undergo complete core fusion and totally explode as a type Ia supernova.
  • r = 16/20:
    Nearly correct (explanation weak, unclear or only nearly complete); includes extraneous/tangential information; or has minor errors.
  • t = 12/20:
    Contains right ideas, but discussion is unclear/incomplete or contains major errors. At least identifies "burps" as novae that may lead up to a type Ia supernova "self-destruct," and that a companion star is feeding hydrogen to some type of compact object.
  • v = 8/20:
    Limited relevant discussion of supporting evidence of at least some merit, but in an inconsistent or unclear manner. Discussion may involve processes other than a white dwarf with a companion star.
  • x = 4/20:
    Implementation/application of ideas, but credit given for effort rather than merit.
    y = 2/20: Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • y = 2/20:
    Irrelevant discussion/effectively blank.
  • z = 0/20:
    Blank.
Grading distribution:
Section 70160
p: 7 students
r: 11 students
t: 7 students
v: 7 students
x: 5 students
y: 0 students
z: 1 student

A sample "p" response (from student 7735):

A sample illustrated "p" response (from student 7133):

Another sample "p" response (from student 3363):

Yet another sample "p" response (from student 1104):

A sample "t" response (from student 4305), while mistaken about the nature of T Pyxidis, is still nonetheless scared of it:

A sample "x" response (from student 1111), essentially regurgitating the given facts:

20110111

Found physics: International Space Station flyover

101222-1200710
http://www.flickr.com/photos/waiferx/5316794537/
Originally uploaded by Waifer X

International Space Station passing over 'Aiea, HI, December 22, 2010, 5:23:45 PM, in evening twilight.

20110110

Online reading assignment question: interesting, confusing student topics (Cuesta College, fall semester 2010)

Astronomy 210, Fall Semester 2010
Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA

110102-interestingwordle
http://www.flickr.com/photos/waiferx/5317389900/
Originally uploaded by Waifer X

Wordle.net tag cloud for interesting astronomy topics, generated by students at the end of the semester (http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/2933581/Untitled). Notably "planets" and "moonphases" responses, while common here, were not selected as common interesting astronomy topics at the start of the semester.


110102-confusingwordle
http://www.flickr.com/photos/waiferx/5316795265/
Originally uploaded by Waifer X

Wordle.net tag cloud for potentially confusing astronomy topics, generated by students at the end of the semester (http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/2933673/Untitled). Notably "moonphases," a common topic here, was not selected as a common confusing astronomy topic at the start of the semester, while "math" was at the start of the semester.


Students have a weekly online reading assignment (hosted by SurveyMonkey.com), where they answer questions based on reading their textbook, material covered in previous lectures, opinion questions, and/or asking (anonymous) questions or making (anonymous) comments. Full credit is given for completing the online reading assignment before next week's lecture, regardless if whether their answers are correct/incorrect. Selected results/questions/comments are addressed by the instructor at the start of the following lecture.

(The following questions were asked after the last lecture, but prior to the final exam.)

[Responses have been edited to consolidate common related subjects.]

Discuss the most interesting aspect of this course, and explain why this was personally interesting for you. (Graded for completion.)

Student responses
Sections 70158, 70160
planets
expansion
planetformation, starformation
lookbacktime, universe
planets
blackholes
everything
starwheels
everything, stars, constellations, moonphases
planets
constellations, starwheels
universe
ETlife
planets, stars
ETlife
lookbacktime
stars, planets
jovianplanets, MilkyWay
stars, nebulae
moonphases, eclipses
CO2
flashcards
planetformation
Pdog
moonphases
moonphases, eclipses
starformation, blackholes, galaxies
constellations
bigbang
starwheels
bigbang, expansion
stars, starwheels
blackholes
constellations
cosmology
ETlife
planetformation
flashcards
nebulae
expansion
stars
planets
history
moonphases
blackholes, whitedwarfs, planets
moonphases
blackholes
moonphases
bigbang
planets
supernovae
moonphases, constellations, bigbang
bigbang
starformation
cosmology, bigbang
blackholes, stars, nebulae, planets
planets
blackholes, universe
blackholes
expansion
bigbang, expansion
planets
bigbang, stars
Sun
bigbang, expansion
everything
planets

Discuss the most confusing aspect of this course, and explain why this was personally confusing for you. (Graded for completion.)

Student responses
Sections 70158, 70160
galaxies
halo, metallicity
cosmology
moonphases
nothing
math
prograde, retrograde, stars
telescopes, MilkyWay
stars
galaxies, spacetime
Sun
expansion, redshift
spectra
nothing
retrograde
blackholes
telescopes
planets, stars
cosmology
planets
nothing
moonphases
flashcards
everything
homework
Pluto
?
everything
bigbang
telescopes
nothing
blackbodyradiation, spectra
nothing
planets
moonphases
moon
distances
blackholes
blackholes
bigbang, flashcards
moonphases
Newton'slaws
moonphases
everything
starwheels
starwheels
spectra
moonphases
exams
starwheels
quantummechanics, spectra
stars
moonphases, retrograde, planetfinding
everything
nothing
Sun, spectra, moonphases
darkmatter
everything
moonphases
stars
history
starwheels
planetfinding
everything
everything, stars
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